The popularity of CBD has grown tremendously in recent years. Studies conducted recently have demonstrated that CBD can be a new medicine for treating resistant epilepsy for pediatric patients. It also assists in seizure reduction, treatment of diseases like cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, and arthritis. The intracellular transporter responsible for transporting CBD and THC is Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs). Three brain FABPs carry CBD and THC to the cell interior from the cell membrane. Below are the several ways in which CBD works within cells:
1. White blood cell production
CBD boosts the immune system by encouraging an increase in white blood cell production. The endocannabinoid system that is the central nervous system is responsible for maintaining wellness and body functions. However, there are cases such as in the autoimmune disorders where endocannabinoid produced by our bodies does not function well. In such cases, our bodies will allow cannabinoids (from cannabis) to assists in body functions instead of inadequate endocannabinoids. Studies show that CBD motivates white blood cell production for immunodeficient patients, increasing their immunity, especially in patients with HIV.
2. CBD influence on CB1 and CB2 receptors
The central nervous system has two receptors that are CB1 and CB2. CB1 is responsible for mood regulation, memory, appetite, coordination, pain, and movement. CB2 is responsible for inflammation and influencing pain. CBD does not connect itself to the receptors but affects them thus providing several health benefits. There also cases where CBD influences non-cannabinoid receptors, which helps treat psychotic disorders.
3. CBD on neurotransmitters
Recently, CBD is used to treat patients with neurodevelopment disorders. An example is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the brain, CBD acts on the prefrontal cortex and BD. CBD targets polypharmacy by regulating inhibitory Y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory glutamate. Therefore, CBD facilitates the transmission of GABA neurotransmission and glutamate through the brain. CBD act on GABA and glutamate is essential for ASD patient’s treatment.
4. CBD influence on vanilloid receptors
CBD is responsible for bringing out a therapeutic effect by interacting with several ion channels. For example, it binds itself to the TPRV1 receptor, which is an ion channel. TPRV1 is a vanilloid receptor. TPRV1 is responsible for mediating pain perception, body temperature, and inflammation.TPRV1 is an abbreviation for transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V.
5. CBD on serotonin receptors
When CBD concentrates in high amounts, it activates hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) serotonin receptors, therefore, bringing out an anti-anxiety effect. Serotonin receptor is associated with a range of neurological and biological processes, including vomiting, nausea, sleep, addiction, pain, anxiety, appetite, etc. Unheated CBD has a high affinity for 5-HTIA. Therefore, the unheated CBD (Cannabidiolic acid) has some anti-nausea properties.
6. CBD on GPR55-Orphan receptors
Even though CBD activates serotonin receptors and vanilloid receptors, it deactivates GPR55 which is a G-protein receptor. GPR55 is responsible for promoting osteoclast cell function that helps in bone reabsorption. GPR55 activation leads to the proliferation of cancer cells. CBD deactivation of GPR55 may lead to a reduction in cancer cell proliferation and bone reabsorption.
CBD works in human cells by influencing CB1 and CB2 receptors responsible for inflammation, mood regulation, memory, appetite, coordination, pain, and movement. It also binds itself to receptors such as vanilloid and serotonin receptors, providing several health benefits such as anti-nausea and providing therapeutic effects to the body.