Biofilms affect the following problem areas:

HEALTHCARE

They cause infections directly in chronic wounds and ear infections, periodontal diseases, endocarditis, pneumonia in patients with cystic fibrosis, catheter, and implant-associated infections, and inflammatory infections (seborrheic and atopic dermatitis). Fishermen often report such issues.

Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are usually associated with implanted medical devices. These devices are highly susceptible to biofilm growth and infections. Other biofilm-induced HAIs come from health care environment materials and furniture like hospital beds, clothing, toilets, water, air, and even from their personnel.

As biofilm can replicate on oral plaque and tartar, they are also able to channel through the host’s circulatory system. This is where periodontal and systemic diseases connect and affect the latter to inflame and develop body diseases like diabetes, respiratory problems, cancer, Alzheimer’s diseases, etc.

Biofilms can be responsible for the inability of wounds to advance to its healing stages. They re-infect wound openings and broken capillaries until it becomes incurable. Such condition requires mechanical, surgical or chemical methods of removing the wound but is not a guarantee that the biofilm is eradicated in the body.

Inflammations and skin disorders are caused by a deficiency of autoimmune agents. However, biofilms in the case of dermatitis contribute to treatment difficulty in these chronic skin infections.

FOOD PROCESSING

Biofilm is common in the food industry. It is found in almost all surfaces of materials and facilities that are for food use and manufacture. They can even be formed from stale food products, ingredients, and even food refuse, carcasses, and those that are hard to sanitize.

Biofilm’s presence in these materials and facilities in food processing leads to serious hygienic problems, economic losses through spoilage of food, and the persistence of pathogens and pathogen-like microbes in food transferred from materials and equipment used for food processing.

The most common bacteria capable of forming biofilms are Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E Coli), Bacillus, Listeria monocytes, and Campylobacter jejuni.

DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS

Almost anywhere at home can be a surface where biofilms can form and replicate. Most foodborne diseases are commonly found in the surfaces where food are usually prepared, like kitchen countertops, appliances, kitchen tools and utensils, and even sponges and cleaning cloths.

Sinks and sponges are known to harbor massive quantities of pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter, and fecal coliforms.

Such implications and escalations in foodborne disease outbreaks lead to the increased need for disinfectants that features contents with anti-biofilm activity functions.